众所周知，在考研[微博]英语真题中，文章多来源于The Economist(经济学人)、Times (时代周刊)、Scientific American (科学美国人)等国外著名杂志、报刊。这些杂志、报刊被称为同源外刊。The Economist中的一篇名为《改变中的男人》的文章从成为结构、表达方式都与真题相近，吸引了都教授的眼球，下面就带各位2016考研学子来学习一 下。
The US Senate has confirmed former CIA director Mike Pompeo as secretary of state, ending a tough confirmation battle.
The changing man
The debacle has forced Mr Trump to consider wooing Democratic congressmen (there is talk of him linking his tax reform plans, of which Democrats are sceptical, to his infrastructure plans, which they like),which would require him to moderate his behaviour. Some Republican senators, who have longer terms and more mixed electorates than their colleagues in the House, are already demanding he do so. Though the AHCA defeat did not in itself augur better congressional oversight of Mr Trump, the spectre that haunted Mr Schneiderman—a unified Republican government uncritically supporting a rogue president—is looking less threatening.
Mr Pompeo had been accused by Democrats of being a war hawk and harbouring anti-Muslim and homophobic views.
George Romney, father of the present Republican presidential nominee and himself a candidate for the White House in 1968, used to joke that his campaign had been “like a miniskirt: short and revealing”. By analogy, his son Mitt’s bid for the presidency has been more of a crinoline: long and cumbersome.
NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON, DC
The Senate voted 57-42 to approve him as America's top diplomat, the second of the Trump presidency.
The younger Mr Romney has been running for president for six years at least, since the waning days of his governorship of Massachusetts. He has proved doubters wrong by progressing as far as he has, in spite of his flip-flopping, his woodenness, his wealth and his Mormon faith. Yet he has not made it look easy, and is currently behind in the polls in an election that many pundits think is the Republicans’ to lose. Mr Romney, who will officially be anointed the Republican nominee at the party’s convention in Tampa on August 30th, is still very much in contention—but more by virtue of doggedness than flair.
- 团结的共和党政府无原则地支持一位流氓总统 - 看起来并不那么危险。
His predecessor, Rex Tillerson, was sacked last month by the president via Twitter amid a personality clash.
Mr Romney has run for public office three times before. He won one of those races (for governor, in 2002) and lost the other two (for the Senate in 1994, and for president in 2008). He came third in the Republican presidential primaries last time round, measured by number of delegates won, or second, if you go by his share of the vote. He conceded to John McCain just over a month into the race.
Setbacks for Donald Trump in Congress and the courts suggest that America’s checks and balances are working. But there is still plenty to worry about.
Lawsuits, satire and social media
The courts have provided a more straightforward check. Mr Trump’s immigration rules appeared to be an attempt to honour his campaign promise to keep out Muslims; they were disguised as counter-terrorism measures against high-risk nationalities in an effort to evade the constitutional bar on discriminating on the basis of religion. Both edicts were challenged by broad coalitions of states, NGOs and private firms and subsequently stayed by judges on procedural and constitutional grounds. The president impugned the legitimacy of the first obstructive beak, James Robart—a George W. Bush appointee whom Mr Trump described as a “so-called judge”. Even his own nominee to the Supreme Court, Neil Gorsuch, a Coloradan jurist, thought this too much. “When anyone criticises the honesty, the integrity or the motives of a federal judge, I find that disheartening,”he said during his Senate confirmation hearing on March 21st.
法院提供了一种更为直接了当的监督。特朗普总统的移民行政法令显然是履行竞选承诺的一次尝试，目的是阻止穆斯林进入美国; 这些法令被伪装成针对危险国家的反恐措施，以规避宪法限制的宗教歧视。这两个法令都受到州政府，非政府组织和私营企业构成的广泛联盟的质疑，随后被法官以违反程序和宪法为由停止执行。总统驳斥了阻挠法令执行的詹姆斯·罗伯特的正当性。乔治·W·布什任命的这位地方执法官被特朗普称为“所谓的法官”。即使他自己提名的最高法院法官，科罗拉多州法学家尼尔·戈索赫（Neil Gorsuch）也认为这种说法太过分了。他在3月21日的参议院确认听证会上说，“当有人批评联邦法官的正直，诚信或动机时，我会感觉沮丧。”
The media, leaky bureaucrats and the millions who have flocked to rallies against his presidency (which, though dwindling, are still widespread) have provided such a barrage of extra-constitutional scrutiny that some think a new system of accountability is emerging. “We’re seeing a vastly expanded definition of checks and balances, and they seem to be working,”says Alan Dershowitz, a legal scholar.
In a world worried about the rise of fake news, the best coverage of Mr Trump’s administration has been tremendous. The New York Times and Washington Post have had weekly scoops about the peculiar chumminess between its senior members and various Russians; the scandal has so far forced Michael Flynn to quit as national security adviser and Jeff Sessions, the attorney-general,to recuse himself from his department’s investigation into allegations that Mr Trump’s team colluded with Russian hackers during the campaign.Those revelations have also made it harder for Republican congressmen to ignore the issue, as some, including Devin Nunes,who heads the House intelligence committee,would clearly prefer.
在担心假新闻的世界里，关于特朗普政府执政的最佳新闻报道层出不穷。 “纽约时报”和“华盛顿邮报”每周都有关于其高级幕僚和各类俄罗斯人之间特殊亲密关系的报道;到目前为止，丑闻已经迫使迈克尔·弗林（Michael Flynn）辞去国家安全顾问一职。总检察长杰夫·赛辛斯（Jeff Sessions），自请回避本部门针对特朗普团队竞选期间与俄罗斯黑客勾结的指控调查。这些被披露的真相使得共和党议员更难无视这个问题，因为这是一些人喜闻乐见的局面，其中包括美国众议院情报委员会的领袖德温·努内斯（Devin Nunes）。
Honed by decades of growing partisanship and low expectations of congressional oversight, the response to Mr Trump from NGOs, left-leaning and otherwise,has been similarly impressive. The American Civil Liberties Union, which sued the administration over both sets of immigration rules, received over $24m in online donations over the course of a recent weekend,more than six times what it normally expects to collect online in a year. For some, this is a continuation of previous struggles; to brief reporters on its plans to resist Mr Trump one environmental group dusts off a history of its (broadly successful)legal stand-offs with Mr Bush.
Mr Dershowitz also points to less organised checks, including critical commentary on social media, disapproving foreign allies and merciless late-night comics: MrTrump has perked up American satire and the career of Alec Baldwin. “It’s a more transient, not predictable or reliable,not visible or transparent system, which has its own dangers,” he says. “But in my view it will be strong enough to be a sufficient check on this presidency.”
德肖维茨还指出监管缺乏条理性，包括对社交媒体的批判性评论，对外国盟友的不认可以及对深夜脱口秀的无情反对等等：特朗普使美国人的讽刺水平和亚历克·鲍德温(Alec Baldwin)的职业生涯焕然一新。 “这是一个更加临时性的，不可预测或不可靠的，不可见或不透明的系统，它有自己的危险，”他说。 “但在我看来，这股力量足够强大用以监督总统。”
It is a sad reflection of the state of America that a quasi-constitutional role for “Saturday Night Live” could seem reassuring.The system that the founders created as a way for the different branches of government to counter each other’s excesses should not need shoring up by a posse of bloggers and disloyal civil servants. The constitutional frailty this reveals, and of which Mr Trump’s election is to some degree symptomatic, has in fact been evident for some time.
It is over four decades since the historian Arthur Schlesinger warned, in “The Imperial Presidency”, of a post-war power grab by the executive branch “so spacious and peremptory as to imply a radical transformation of the traditional polity.” The book was a hit, but did nothing to interrupt a steady flow of powers to the White House which has continued under all the presidents since. As the executive opened up new domains for itself in setting pollution standards for industry, overseeing banking and even ordering the country to war, a clear congressional prerogative, the presidential bureaucracy ballooned.
As it grew, it became increasingly politicised; under John F. Kennedy, 196 presidential appointments required Senate confirmation,now 1,212 do. And it became more centralised. In the 1930s Congress magnanimously permitted Franklin D. Roosevelt to maintain a staff of six “presidential assistants”; recent presidents have commanded an army of over 500 White House staffers, whose mission is to ensure the government bends to the president’s will,and that he gets all the credit when it does.This has transformed the character of government, from a semblance of well-advised policymaking to a relentless effort to fulfil presidential campaign promises.
Republican senators, who control the upper chamber, voted unanimously on Thursday to confirm Mr Pompeo. Six Democrats joined them.
This year, thanks in part to a more attenuated primary calendar, it took much longer to settle the nomination. A number of fancied candidates, including Jeb Bush, Chris Christie and Mitch Daniels (all successful current or former governors) failed to enter the race, leaving Mr Romney the favourite in a lacklustre field. Yet it was not until April that he finally dispatched Rick Santorum, a militantly conservative former senator from Pennsylvania who lost his re-election bid in 2006 by 18 points, and Newt Gingrich, a mercurial former Speaker of the House of Representatives who had “more baggage than the airlines”, as a pro-Romney ad memorably put it.
A space for authoritarianism
At the expense of Congress, recent presidents have also assumed additional powers over foreign policy and civil liberties. In doing so they risk being checked by judges.But they have mitigated that possibility by assembling, in the office of the White House counsel, a battery of ingenious, Supreme Court-quality lawyers; Mr Obama employed almost 50. The result has been a proliferation of contentious legal precedents,extending the authority of the president,which in unscrupulous hands could amount to a tool kit for tyranny. Following Mr Bush’s and Mr Obama’s example, the president can order American citizens to be killed secretly overseas, detain foreign prisoners indefinitely without charge and try them on the basis of evidence that the state will not divulge.
Despite spasms of concern, both liberals and conservatives have applauded this executive power grab. “I want to strengthen the current Democratic president,” said Newt Gingrich, when he was a bitterly partisan Republican Speaker of the House under Mr Clinton, “because he is the president.” Scholars of both stripes have often argued that the risks of overreach were justified by the president’s democratic prerogative to fulfil his mandate. The growing dysfunction in Congress, which has seen its lawmaking and oversight give way to shouty tribalism (for which Mr Gingrich deserves much blame) has meanwhile made that conclusion seem more natural.For if Congress will not pass laws, how else is the country to be governed?
Some of those Democrats - including North Dakota's Heidi Heitkamp and West Virginia's Joe Manchin - come from states that President Donald Trump won in 2016.
THE morning after Donald Trump was elected president, Eric Schneiderman, the Democratic attorney-general of New York, summoned his raddled senior lawyers to a war council. Seated in his unfussy 25th-floor office in lower Manhattan, Mr Schneiderman told them to assume Mr Trump’s brutish campaign pledges were in earnest, and to clear their desks for action.
The approval comes in time for Mr Pompeo - a former hardline conservative congressman from Kansas - to lead a US delegation to Nato foreign minister talks in Brussels this weekend.
唐纳德·特朗普当选总统后的那个早晨，纽约民主党总检察长埃里克·施奈德曼（Eric Schneiderman）集合他筋疲力尽的高级律师们召开了一次作战会议。 施奈德曼坐在位于曼哈顿下城第二十五层不太讲究的办公室里，告诉他们特朗普看似不讲道理的竞选承诺可能是认真的，为此要求他们清理干净办公桌，准备迎接战斗。
In a statement, Mr Trump applauded his new secretary of state as someone who "will always put the interests of America first".
"Having a patriot of Mike's immense talent, energy, and intellect leading the Department of State will be an incredible asset for our country at this critical time in history," he added.
曼哈顿下城集中了很多重要的观光点，自由女神像（Statue of Liberty），埃利斯岛（Ellis Island）等等
Mr Pompeo has been arranging a summit between Mr Trump and North Korea's leader Kim Jong-un. The meeting could happen in the coming months.
While the president-elect was digesting his victory in Trump Tower, five miles up the road, Mr Schneiderman put scores of the 650 lawyers at his disposal on Trump watch. They started trawling through his campaign statements and preparing legal defences against the assaults he had promised on immigration, consumer protection and climate-change policy. With the Republicans who control Congress apparently unwilling to hold Mr Trump to account, Mr Schneiderman feared that Democratic attorneys-general might have to act as a thin blue line of resistance to an authoritarian president.
A man out front
Analysis by Barbara Plett, State Department Correspondent, BBC News, Washington
Mike Pompeo is a man of action and all indications are he plans to be out front as Secretary of State. As a Trump loyalist and foreign policy hawk he's the exact opposite of his predecessor Rex Tillerson.
The thin blue line的背景解释
But he aims to use the former to gain clout amongst the key Cabinet and White House players determining America's relations with the world. And on the latter he's tried to convince senators that he'll pursue "relentless diplomacy."
Mr Schneiderman, a small man who speaks fast and wastes few words, already understood Mr Trump’s capacity for rule breaking. In 2013 he sued Mr Trump over the fleecing of students at Trump University,a bogus training scheme for would-be property moguls. In response, the tycoon alleged malicious prosecution and sued him for millions of dollars. In 2014 the New York Observer, a newspaper owned by Mr Trump’s son-in-law and adviser, Jared Kushner, ran a lengthy hatchet job on him.“I did not realise it at the time,” he says,“but I was getting a preview of the scorched earth approach he takes to opposition.”
He's been at it already with his secret trip to North Korea, and can be expected to continue to take the lead in preparing for the summit between Trump and Kim Jong-un. But he believes the administration's hardline approach of sanctions backed by the credible threat of force is what forced the North Korean leader to the table and has pledged to maintain the pressure until the talks yield concrete results.
施奈德曼是一个语速很快，没有废话的小个子。他对特朗普破坏规则的能力已然心知肚明。2013年，他就特朗普大学欺诈学生一案对特朗普提出起诉。特朗普大学是给那些想要成为房产大亨的人提供的一项虚构的训练计划。作为回击，特朗普宣称这是恶意诬告，并起诉了他，要求赔偿数百万美元。2014年，纽约观察家报（特朗普的女婿和顾问贾德·库斯纳（Jared Kushner）拥有的一份报纸），对他进行了长期恶意攻击。“我当时并没有意识到，”他说 “这是特朗普针对反对者焦土方式的预演。“
He doesn't like the Iran nuclear deal but says he'd prefer to fix it rather than scrap it. Democrats are sceptical, but he'll have a lot of work to do if Trump does abandon the accord, since there's no set formula for what that would mean.
Ten weeks into his term, Mr Trump is behaving much as Mr Schneiderman predicted. Among other affronts, he has tried to discredit the electoral process by making false claims about illegal voting and has peddled false allegations that Britain spied on him. He has failed to disengage convincingly from his business interests, or reveal the extent of them. He has signed cruel and amateurish immigration rules and, when they faced legal challenge, argued that his border policy was no business of the courts. According to the fact-checkers at the Washington Post, Mr Trump uttered 317“false or misleading” statements in his first 63 days as president. “It’s been clear since he took office”, says Mr Schneiderman,who joined the attack on the immigration rules, “that this president has less regard for the rule of law and precedent and traditions than anyone in recent memory.”
Pompeo has also pledged to restore the State department's "swagger" in the wake of Tillerson's disastrous management of the building, and is already focused on filling the many vacancies.
Yet it was not until April that he finally dispatched Rick Santorum, a militantly conservative former senator from Pennsylvania who lost his re-election bid in 2006 by 18 points, and Newt Gingrich, a mercurial former Speaker of the House of Representatives who had “more baggage than the airlines”， as a pro-Romney ad memorably put it.
White House spokeswoman Sarah Sanders tweeted a photo of Mr Pompeo watching on TV as the Senate held their vote.
State department spokeswoman Heather Nauert said on Twitter that Mr Pompeo told her he is "delighted to be Secretary of State, completely humbled by the responsibility and looking forward to getting to work".
长难句解析：句子中的not until that.。.是一个固定搭配，表示“知道.。.才”。句子的主干是It was not until April that he finally dispatched Rick Santorum...and Newt Gingrich... Pennsylvania作Rick Santorum的同位语，who lost his re-election bid in 2006 by 18 points是定语从句用来修饰a militantly conservative former senator from Pennsylvania也就是Rick Santorum。同样的，a mercurial former Speaker of the House of Representatives 是Newt Gingrich 的同位语，后面的who had “more baggage than the airlines”是定语从句修饰a mercurial former Speaker of the House of Representatives . as a pro-Romney admemorably是一个由as引导的状语，表示“像……一样”。这里作补充说明，即他的“精神包袱比航空公司的行李都多”出自一家亲罗姆尼的广告公司之口。
Yet although Mr Schneiderman’s estimation of the threat Mr Trump poses appears well judged, his sense of America’s vulnerability now looks pessimistic. The failure of the Republicans in the House of Representatives on March 24th to pass a health-care bill on which Mr Trump had staked his image as America’s closer-in chief shows that the president cannot carry all before him. A vigorous repulse to his excesses from journalists, NGOs, companies and millions of protesters, as well as the states, has proved additionally inconvenient. America’s constitutional checks and balances appear to be holding up better than many feared.
Less than an hour after he was sworn in by Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito, he boarded a military plane for Belgium.
"No other Secretary of State in modern history has travelled so soon after confirmation," said Mrs Nauert.
The defeat of the American Health Care Act (AHCA), it must be admitted, was hardly a textbook illustration of James Madison’s constitutional ideal that presidential ambition be frustrated by the powers of Congress. The bill’s aspiration, to begin the process of repealing Barack Obama’s health-care reform, known as Obamacare,is widely shared among Republicans. Under Mr Obama,House Republicans futilely voted to repeal Obamacare more than 50 times. Getting rid of it was one of Mr Trump’s main campaign pledges. The 30-odd right-wingers, known as the House Freedom Caucus, who opposed the repeal bill, causing Paul Ryan, the Republican Speaker of the House, to withdraw it, intended no rebuke to Mr Trump. Many caucus members admire him. Their target was Mr Ryan, whose pragmatism they abhor:they felt his bill, which they derided as“Obamacare-lite”, would not sufficiently reduce federal subsidies which help the poor buy health insurance.
Before he was confirmed, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Bob Corker described him as the "perfect person to come in at this time and lead" talks with North Korea.
Over the Easter holiday he travelled to Pyongyang, where he met Mr Kim.
TheAmerican Health Care Act of 2017(H.R. 1628), referred to by the acronymAHCAand nicknamed variouslyTrumpcare,Ryancare,Obamacare-Lite,andRepublicare,was aUnited States Congressbill)to repeal thePatient Protection and Affordable Care Act(ACA). It was based on a plan first publicly released byHouse Republicanson March 6, 2017, and the first part of what its proponents claim was a 3-phase plan to repeal the act. The AHCA would have repealed the parts of the Affordable Care Act within the scope of the federal budget, including provisions contained within the Internal Revenue Code such as the individual and employer mandates and various taxes, and also modifications to the federal Medicaid program.
The bill was withdrawn on March24, 2017, after it failed to gain sufficient House Republican support to pass it.
Mrs Sanders tweeted photos of the two from that trip after Mr Pompeo's confirmation, saying "he will do an excellent job".
Regardless of their target, they dealt a blow to Mr Trump. He has promised to end the legislative dysfunction in Washington,DC, with his dealmaking skills. In the case of the AHCA, these consisted in threatening to launch primary challenges against his fellow Republicans unless they passed a bill which he appeared not to understand very well (“Mark Meadows, I’m coming after you,” he told the caucus’s North Carolinian leader, maybe jokingly). Perhaps he will recover some of his lost face, as Bill Clinton did after suffering his own healthcare reform foul-up early in his presidency.But Mr Trump will have to acquire better negotiating skills. He could also do with lifting his approval ratings; according to polling by Gallup, only 35% of Americans think he is doing a good job, which is unlikely to strike fear into Mr Meadows.
On Tuesday, Mr Trump described the North Korean ruler as "very honourable", after months of deriding him as "Little Rocket Man".
US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley also congratulated Mr Pompeo following the confirmation vote.
After travelling to Brussels he will next go to Israel, where he is expected to meet Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in Jerusalem.
During that trip he will also visit Saudi Arabia and Jordan to "discuss critical and bilateral issues", according to a statement from the state department.