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积极方法和态度,冲刺2015考研英语

时间:2019-11-22 13:53来源:考试
图画作文是今年考研[微博]英语写作中出现频率最高的一类文体,考生要特别加以重视。图画作文通常是给出一幅或几幅漫画或图片。一般来说,所给图画均反映一定的社会现象或社会

图片 1

  图画作文是今年考研[微博]英语写作中出现频率最高的一类文体,考生要特别加以重视。图画作文通常是给出一幅或几幅漫画或图片。一般来说,所给图画均反映一定的社会现象或社会现实。这类作文难度较大,要求考生仔细分析图画的内容,并通过文字形式将图中所包含的思想内容准确地表达出来。考生可以将此类作文转化为三段式或四段式提纲作文。图画作文写作有如下三个步骤:

  根据《在职人员以研究生毕业同等学力申请硕士学位外国语课程水平统一考试大纲》的规定,要求考生具备一定的写作能力,在30分钟内按要求写出一篇100~120词的短文,形式可以是按所给的提纲写短文,或描述图表,写内容提要、概述等。

课程:Conflict, Stress and Time Management: apply to a customer support environment

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  1.认真审题

  一、评分标准

今天探讨最后一部分内容:Stree and Time Management in Customer Service

  情景作文一般没有具体规定标题,仅仅提供一定的情景。考生要自己从情景信息中提炼文章的中心思想并以此为基础确定自己文章的标题和段落结构,千万不要脱离情景,而应严格依照题目所规定的情景构思短文。

  在审题时,考生要认真分析图画所反映的内容以及出题者的意图,分析图画的表层含义和深层含义,通过表层含义分析图画真正想要说明的问题是什么,从而挖掘出其深层含义以确定文章的中心思想。

  写作评分标准主要围绕四个方面评判:1。内容要切题;2。能正确表达思想;3。意义连贯;4。无重大语法错误。批改作文时,主要从内容和语言两个方面进行综合评判。内容和语言是一个统一体。作文应表达题目所规定的内容,而内容要通过语言来表达。作文是否切题,是否充分表达思想,和语言上的错误是否造成理解上的障碍有密切的关系。下面就评分标准的四个方面分别加以说明。

  1. 压力管理

  规定情景作文的写作有如下要点,希望大家注意:

  2.确定写作重点

  (一)内容切题

不要混淆挑战和压力。挑战是正向的激励,而压力则是负面的阻挡。

  1.在题目规定的情景内展开构思,组织内容。

  审题之后,根据分析的结果列出提纲并组织安排段落,确定每一个段落的主题和写作重点,然后根据题目要求进行选材,并对所选材料再进行筛选和分类。

  在目前常见的作文题目中,内容切题一般包括两个方面。一是写作内容要围绕题目规定的话题展开。比如"A Fiveday Week"(五天工作制),文章的内容应围绕五天工作制进行论述,与其无关的内容,当以跑题论处,但此种现象并不多见。其二,在有些作文题中还包括提纲如:

"Challenge is a dragon with a gift in its mouth…Tame the dragon and the gift is yours." – Noela Evans, author

  2.仔细审题。考生应明确题目所提供的情景,是论证还是说明,是叙事还是写景。

  3.确定写作模式

  Fire Accidents in Big Cities 

1)Sources of stress

  3.确定段落与主题句。各段的主题句条理清晰,同时也使考生对自己所要表达的内容有更具体的把握。

  确定写作模式实际上就是按照题目要求确定文章的整体结构。如上所述,图画作文一般可转化为三段式写作模式:

  Outline:

unreasonable workloads and deadlines

  4.平稳地展开段落。主题句一经确定,考生便可以围绕主题句,展开段落,完成全文的写作。段落的展开应该建立在段落情景基础之上,每段的重点都应集中于描述情景规定内容。

  开始段:描述图画表层含义及深层含义并由此得出结论;

  1.Present Situation 

conflict with coworkers or lack of coworker support

  5.考生的词句使用应紧扣情景,突出重点,前后连贯,表达清楚。

  中间段:解释原因、分析结果,或进一步论证主题思想;

  2.Causes 

conflicting, confusing, or unclear communication, priorities, and responsibilities

  6.明确题型种类。情景写作可根据内容写成不同文体,如记叙文、议论文等,故考生应该注意灵活运用相应文体的写作方法与技巧。

  结束段:发表个人评论或提出建议。

  3.Measures 

uncomfortable or hazardous environmental factors

  7.认真检查与修改。考生应重点检查是否完全准确地包含了情景所要求的各方面内容,是否有与情景相悖或不想关的内容。

  【经典范文】

  这种带提纲的作文题目不仅要求考生根据标题写作,而且要根据提纲规定的内容和范围展开各个段落,不能按自己的思路发挥。考生在这方面出的问题比较多。如1994年考研作文题是:On Making Friends(论交友),其三段的提纲分别是:1.The need for friends 2.True Friendship 3.My principle in making friends。第三段的提纲要求考生围绕我交友的原则进行议论,然而有个别考生在段中这样写道:

lack of job security, lack of control, or lack of participation in decisions

  【经典范文】

  Directions: Study the followingdrawing carefully and write an essay in which you should

  The former paragraph has shown my principle in making friends in some way.Furthermore,what I want to say is that one good friend is enough. 

rapid changes for which workers are unprepared

  Directions: Stress isa natural part of modern life. In this part, you are required to write within40 minutes a composition of no less than 200 words about "Stress in ModernLife". You are to state briefly the relationship between stress and modernlife and the different attitudes towards stress. At the end of your compositionyou should draw your own conclusion。

  1) describe the drawing,

  该考生把应放在第三段中论述的内容写在第二段中,第三段就没内容可写了。这类命题作文要求考生按规定和要求写作,不能按自己的想法随意更改,写上段作文的考生不仅第三段没有扣题,第二段也没有做到内容切题。一篇内容切题的作文应能既围绕题目,又能在各段扣准提纲,才真正符合内容切题的要求。下面这一段是另一学生的作文,都是第三段,内容切题,恰当地扣住我交友的原则"的写作要求:

2)Symptoms of stress

  Stress in Modern Life

  2) interpret it simplications,

  When I choose friends,I do not care what work they do or what social background they are from,but I do notice those little things which reveal one’s characters.I would make sure that we really care for each other,so that no matter how much time goes by without seeing each other,I know my friends will always be there,ready to he lp if I need them,And I know we are true friends indeed. 

Stress is based in one of the most basic preprogrammed biological reactions. It is an evolutionary artifact known as the fight-or-flight response. 

  It’s known to allthat stress is a natural part of daily life and there is no way to avoid it. Asthe pace of modern life continues to increase, we are always feeling on the gofrom morning till night. And it is hard to slow down. It seems to us thateveryone around us is aggressive. Therefore, whatever one does, he feels understress all the time. It is clear that stress has much to do with the life in acompetitive society。

  3) give yourcomments。

  (二)能正确地表达思想

rapid heartbeat and pulse

  Different people,however, think of stress quite differently. Some believe that stress is not thebad thing it is often supposed to be. They are of the opinion that a certainamount of stress is vital to provide motivation and to give purpose to life.Others argue that stress contributes to one’s mental decline and henceendangers his health. According to them, relaxation, the opposite of stress, isessential for a healthy mind and body。

  You should write 160—200 words。

  一篇好短文能使读者一目了然。文章的思路应清楚,逻辑性强,能准确表达作者的思想。请对比下面两段:

inability to think clearly or focus

  Personally, I’m infavor of the former view. I think it is impossible to avoid stress when one isentirely devoted to the career he pursues. In my opinion, it is only when thestress gets out of control that it can lead to poor performance and ill health。

  After thought of Nurishments

  Have you a bike?Taking a bike is a good way,most people think.But in university it seems not as good as other places.Bikes are possible to be stolen now and then.Having a bike isn’t always good enough for us to buy one. 

exaggerated emotions

  短文写作中,考生应注意文章是否切题,论据是否充分;在展开过程中应注意各段内容是否围绕主题句展开,有无与主题无关的句子内容;句子之间、段落之间的连接要自然,逻辑关系要清晰;句子结构要保持完整,人称、时态、动词变化等要保持一致,单词拼写、大小写、标点要无误。这样才能写出一篇令人满意的文章。(来源:文都教育)

  As can be seen from the picture, amiddle-aged man holds a plate with a bowl, a pair of chopsticks, and a jar of nourishment, murmuring "to live well up to the 22nd century, it is really helpful to build up good health with nourishments." His face is as dull as dead water, his tongue is stuck out of his mouth and his posture is strange,knees bent, leaning forward。

  上段作者的思路紊乱不清,字里行间不仅有许多语病,而且也没能把思想表达清楚。读后仍不知作者在表达什么思想、观点,因而这样的段落只能得0分。请看下段:

nervousness

 

  This cartoon poses a serious problem worthy of careful reflection: “What is a positive attitude to wards nourishment?”Misconception prevails nowadays all over the world that nourishment can make the weak strong and the sick healthy. For those believing in this kind oftheory, such omnipotent nourishment is all-cures. So they take this kind of‘magical nourishment’ excessively. However, something is far from the truth. Taking nourishment to ensure your health is nothing but an illusion. Moreover, a greatamount of fake nourishment are flooded with in the markets, which will thusdeteriorate your health after continual use。

  It is very convenient to use bikes in China.Bikes don’need fuel,nor a garage or a large parking lot.Bikes can go through narrow streets and their prices are low.So bikes are the most popular vehicles in China today. 

3)Reducing stress

  From the analysis above we can easily draw aconclusion: a wish is a wish, no matter how sweet it is. A good wish, however,doesn’t mean a real life! In reality, life blooms with doing exercises andtaking part in sports. Besides, proper diets are also a rewarded way to keep you fit and healthy. Give up the idea of “more nourishment and more health andyou will build a muscular body in the long run。

  上段的作者以其简单的词汇、简洁的语言、清楚的思路正确地表达了思想,使读者观后能即刻领会作者的思想。

By regularly recording information about the stresses you are experiencing, you can analyze the stresses and your reactions and then work to manage both.

  短文写作中,考生应注意文章是否切题,论据是否充分;在展开过程中应注意各段内容是否围绕主题句展开,有无与主题无关的句子内容;句子之间、段落之间的连接要自然,逻辑关系要清晰;句子结构要保持完整,人称、时态、动词变化等要保持一致,单词拼写、大小写、标点要无误。这样才能写出一篇令人满意的文章。(来源:文都教育)

  要能正确地表达思想,考生还应掌握一些写作技巧,如写好段落主题句,展开段落的方法,写好段尾句等。此外还应掌握一定的词汇量和习惯表达法。

The two levels at which stress can be addressed –internal and situational.

  (三)意义连贯

A:internal**

  文章的层次要分明,条理要清楚,上下文之间、词与词、句与句之间要上下连贯,前后呼应,才能使文章结构严谨,思路清晰、有条理。

dealing with symptoms

Watch for signs of the fight-or-flight response. If you find yourself nervous, muscles tensed, and your heart beating fast, take steps to return to a calm state before dealing with the next caller. Make adjustments before your health and general welfare are affected.

improving your physical condition

Your physical condition – such as exercise and nutrition, including the avoidance of tobacco, alcohol, and excessive caffeine – impacts your energy levels, your ability to think, and your ability to deal with stress.

avoiding unrealistic expectations

You can only fit so much into one day. Unrealistic expectations set you up for failure and increased stress. Avoid perfectionism, don't be a workaholic, and don't obsess over unimportant details.

keeping things in perspective

Your current project or job may be very important to you, but your health, friends, and family are all more important in the long run. As author Natalie Goldberg said, "Stress is an ignorant state. It believes that everything is an emergency."

maintaining a positive outlook

You can't control or change other people, but you can change how you react. Avoid taking things too seriously. Life is too short and too much of it is spent at work not to have a little fun on the job. Remember to reward yourself occasionally.

cultivating coworker support

Having coworkers you can get support and empathy from can be the best stress reducer. Just knowing that the support is available will help, so put some effort into having positive professional relationships.

taking a break

If you have a series of stressful calls, take a break and change your focus for a few minutes. Go for a short walk or go sit somewhere quiet and different from your work environment, such as a park or a cafe.

having a life

Remember that old adage about "all work and no play"? Try to give your life outside work its due. Get a pet. Have a social life. Enjoy a hobby. Be involved in your community. Strive for a true work-life balance.

  下面这个段落是一篇文章的第三段。文章的标题是:Good Health;提纲是1.Importance of good health;2.Ways to keep fit;3.My own practice。根据第三段的提纲"我的做法",一个考生这样写:

B:situational.

  I don’t eat meat much.Every morning I take the long run and in my spare time I like playing tennis and volleyball.In this way I keep good health and lead a happy life. 

Although reducing the situational aspects of stress depends greatly on job design and organizational action, an individual can do certain things to try to affect environmental factors – even though some of the actual decisions may be beyond your control as a CSR:

  上段基本切题,包括提纲要点,表达也基本清楚,但是表达不够连贯。第一句话让人读起来感觉有些突然,分析第一句,作者没有把意思表达清楚,作者我吃肉不多"一定含有这样的意思:我饮食素淡,吃蔬菜水果多,吃肉少。如果能把这层意思写出来,文章的连贯性也就体现出来了。作者的第二句是从体育锻炼方面来表明自己是如何保持健康的,这应是本段中的又一层意思,在这里如能加一个过渡词,会使文章过渡自然流畅。请看下面经过修改的段落:

modify your job situation

If your job is too stressful, ask your employer about adjusting the job to match your capabilities.

If there are policies, procedures, or people inhibiting your ability to do your job, either talk to those involved or ask your supervisor to help resolve the problem. Suggest the appropriate organizational changes instead of just complaining.

control your workspace

Take control of your immediate work area. Make sure you have all the equipment and supplies you need. Ensure your chair, desk, headset, and keyboard are comfortable and ergonomically correct. Make sure you have enough lighting and that the room temperature is comfortable.

Cluttered workspaces add to existing stress and affect productivity and job satisfaction. Make sure the area is clean and organized.

reduce repetitive tasks

By nature, a Customer Service Representative's job is usually repetitive – whether answering customer questions, or addressing complaints and problems. But if there are opportunities to vary your routine and enjoy a mental break from your job, take them.

Reports may need to be compiled or analyzed, or committees organized to plan events. You may be able to cross-train for another area or perhaps help train new employees.

manage your time effectively

Effective time management means being organized, prioritizing, avoiding procrastination, and staying focused. Distractions such as phone calls and e-mails must not keep you from completing your daily tasks.

  As for me(1),I enjoy a good health as I keep a simple diet with more vegetabl es,fruit and less meat.Moreover,I do some exercises whenever I have time such as long distance running,playing tennis or volleyball.As a result(2),I have been a top student all through the four years in the university.So good health is important to everyone(3). 

  1. 时间管理

  (1)发挥了承上启下的作用,没有这样一个介词短语,从第二段过渡到第三段就会显得生硬一些。(2)也起到了连贯作用,在上述两方面保持健康的方法介绍完后,应该进一步写出所产生的结果,这结果就是对全段的总结概括。(3)对文章的标题及开头起了首尾呼应的作用。

1)"Time is the coin of your life. It is the only coin you have, and only you can determine how it will be spent." – Carl Sandburg

  (四)无重大语法错误

在学会管理时间之前,首先需要意识到时间都花在了哪里?

  重大语法错误一般指时态不一致、主语谓语单复数形式不一致、用词不当等,这些问题的存在说明考生在平时的英语学习中很少练习写作,有人甚至从没写过作文,因而出现各种各样语法错误是可以理解的。考生应在考前多进行这方面的训练,一些语法错误在实践中是可以纠正过来的。下面举几例常见错误。

disorganization

procrastination

attempting too much

interruption and distraction

  病句及其分析:

2)Common strategies to manage time and overcome time robbers are

  1.So colleg e provid e the best condition for students. 

organizing:These four simple strategies can help to keep you organized

  此句的主谓语不一致。因为句子的意思是泛指大学为学生提供了最好的学习环境,这里的主语college应变为复数。这类错误极为常见。

make lists

reduce clutter

put your files in order

plan each day's schedule:按照must do, should do and nice to do进行分类

  2.Going to college does not followed that We’ll have a splendid future. 

doing it now:Certain strategies can help you break the procrastination habit, but first, you have to find out why you are doing it.

  此句的主语是现在分词短语,全句的意思是:上大学并不表示我们的未来就一定会光辉灿烂。does not后应跟动词原型follow。

(Overcoming) Unpleasant Tasks

Fear of Failure

Overcoming Fear of Failure

Not Knowing Where to Start

Finding a Place to Start:如果不知道从哪里开始,那就从简单的或你了解的入手。

    更多信息请访问:新浪考研频道 考研论坛 考研博客圈

saying "no":拒绝打扰

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

staying focused:固定时间处理杂事,比如邮件、短信、微信、回电话等

编辑:考试 本文来源:积极方法和态度,冲刺2015考研英语

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